Understanding Asthma Pathophysiology

Understanding Asthma Pathophysiology

Asthma Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology refers to the study of biological processes that are associated with a particular injury or disease. Pathophysiology of asthma therefore examines everything from how it is caused, the body parts it affects, as well as the functions of those particular parts of the body. Asthmatic attack constricts the airways which means the air is unable to pass through. The symptoms of asthma include shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing.

What is the Pathophysiology of Asthma?

There are several factors that may cause asthma. The factors that play the key roles in the development of this disease are inflammation of the airways, bronchial spasm, excess secretion of mucus, hypersensitivity, and allergy.

Hypersensitivity of the airways means that some allergens cause the bronchial tubes to react severely. This exaggerated reaction can lead to coughing and suffocation. Allergy is the hypersensitivity of the body to some external material. Many asthma patients have some certain types of allergies that trigger the inflammation process.

Another thing that can cause the bronchial system to secrete excess mucus is the hyper-responsiveness to irritants. The excessive mucus can flood the airways and if it’s too much, it can block the airways making it harder to breathe.

The spasms or the bronchospasm of the muscle layers in the bronchial walls can make the asthma condition worse. Muscle and epithelial damage, edema, and bronchospasms can lead to bronchoconstriction. This results in airways becoming narrow. Airway narrowing is further increased by edema from microvascular leakage. Airway capillaries may contribute to increased secretions by dilating and leaking, which in turn could cause edema and blockage of mucus clearance.

What are the Precipitating and Triggering Events?

Asthma pathophysiology involves an error in the response of the body to external matters as well as the presence of known triggers. Often, asthmatic attacks are triggered by long-term exposure to various allergens. They can also be triggered by a respiratory infection or an attack of flue. Other triggering factors include air pollution, temperature changes, obesity, and smoking.

In many cases, both genetic and environmental factors are involved in asthma pathophysiology. Most asthma patients who develop this disease early on are those who have familial histories of asthma, eczema, or allergies.


In order to properly deal with asthma, you must learn how it occurs and what necessary precautions you must take. If you experience chronic or frequent breathing problems, then it is highly recommended that you visit your doctor to learn more about the pathophysiology of asthma and the different treatments for it. Your doctor will be able to better explain in detail the reason why this disease occurs. He/she can also help you identify what particular stimuli is triggering your attacks.

The most effective way of overcoming asthma is learning how to avoid its particular triggers. Your doctor can prescribe inhaled medications to help out in fighting the elements of this disease. The medications work to relax the muscle tissues in the airways and expand them so you can breathe better.